COMMON TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES
A developmental disability is a severe, chronic disability that is manifested before age 22 and is likely to continue indefinitely. Listed here are some common types of developmental disabilities and organizations where additional information on each one may be obtained.
Note: The inclusion of a website on this list should not be considered an endorsement of it by the Belmont County Board of Developmental Disabilities.
“Autism is a bio-neurological developmental disability that generally appears before the age of 3. Autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction, communication skills, and cognitive function. Individuals with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.” (Source: National Autism Association)
National Autism Association
Autism Society of America (ASA)
National Institute of Child Health & Human Development
Asperger Syndrome Information and Support
Asperger Syndrome Education Network (ASPEN)
Cerebral Palsy is a “ term used to describe a chronic condition affecting body and/or limb movement and the control of muscle tone and coordination. It is caused by damage to one or more specific areas of the brain during periods of brain development; there is usually no damage to the sensory or motor nerves controlling the muscles. The brain damage is not progressive; however, the characteristics of disabilities resulting from brain damage often change over time.” (Source: United Cerebral Palsy)
United Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy and Special Needs Children's Organization
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Diabetes Association
Diabetes Public Health Resource
Health through the Internet
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. It is characterized by a combination of major and minor differences in structure. It is often associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth, as well as facial appearance.
National Down Syndrome Society
Health Related problems related to Down Syndrome
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures.
Nat’l Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/epilepsy/detail_epilepsy.htm
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of mental and physical defects which develops in some unborn babies when the mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.
National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
FASD Center for Excellence
Family Resource Institute
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
Organization of Teratology Information Services
FRAGILE X SYNDROME
“Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited mental impairment. This impairment can range from learning disabilities to more severe cognitive or intellectual disabilities. FXS is the most common known cause of autism or "autistic-like" behaviors. Symptoms also can include characteristic physical and behavioral features and delays in speech and language development.” (Source: National Fragile X Foundation)
National Fragile X Foundation
National Institute of Child Health & Human Development
“Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.” (Source: AAIDD)
“The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, and duration of the disability and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Furthermore, every individual who is or was eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation is eligible for a diagnosis of intellectual disability.” (Source: AAIDD)
American Association of Intellectual & DD
The Council for Exceptional Children
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the function of the brain.
National Institutes of Health
Centers for Disease Control
Brain Injury Association of America
American Occupational Therapy Association - TBI – Effects and Intervention
Reuters Health - Helmets Protect Skiers, Snowboarders from Head Injury www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_62260.html
CDC Heads Up: Preventing Brain Injuries
National Institutes of Health – Shaken Baby Syndrome
Think First National Injury Prevention Foundation
Centers for Disease Control – Preventing TBI in Older Adults
PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME (PWS)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known genetic cause of life-threatening obesity in children. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an uncommon genetic disorder. It causes poor muscle tone, low levels of sex hormones and a constant feeling of hunger. The part of the brain that controls feelings of fullness or hunger does not work properly in people with PWS. They overeat, leading to obesity.
Babies with PWS are usually floppy, with poor muscle tone, and have trouble sucking. Later, other signs appear. These include
Poor motor skills
Underdeveloped sex organs
Mild mental retardation and learning disabilities
Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA)